Middleware Applications & Conditional Access Systems

Middleware is a computersoftware that connectssoftware components or applications. The software consists
of a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one or more machines to interact. This
technology evolved to provide for interoperability in support of the move to coherent distributed
architectures, which are used most often to support and simplify complex, distributed applications. It includes
web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support application development and delivery.
Middleware is especially integral to modern information technology based on XML, SOAP, Web services, and
service-oriented architecture. Middleware sits “in the middle” between application software that may be
working on different operating systems.
All pay-media operators require a means for ensuring that payment is received in return for the program
content they provide. The technical system that achieves this objective is called a conditional-access (CA)
system. Two key functions of CA systems are to exercise control over the access to a service that is transmitted
electronically, and to control the conditions under which access is granted. There are various reasons for
implementing a CA system, such as the need to enforce payment by the end user for consumed services, to
restrict access to programming in a particular geographical area because of program rights considerations or
to facilitate parental control.